This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They ha. Capillary Forces in Microassembly discusses the use of capillary forces as a gripping principle in microscale assembly. Clearly written and well-organized, this text brings together physical concepts at the microscale with.
An important aim of the presented book is the explanation of the application of piezoelectric materials such as piezoceramics within the wide field of electromechanical actuators and sensor technology.
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The reader should be presented the physical a. As the deep-ultraviolet DUV laser technology continues to mature, an increasing number of industrial and manufacturing applications are emerging.
Cmos Hotplate Chemical Microsensors (Microtechnology and MEMS)
A four-wire setup was chosen for the resistance measurement. In total, two sensors per hotplate could be measured in a four-wire configuration. Line scan X is carried out in the narrow gap perpendicular to the electrical contacts visible as light grey color.
Therefore, an external platinum Pt heater Delta R Pt 6. Hereby, one RTD sensor and the heater were put below the chip, whereas the second sensor which was used for comparison with the Raman measurements was put on top of the chip. Heater and temperature sensors were operated by an external source. This power ensured a high signal-to-noise ratio of the Si peak without excessively heating the sample surface cf. Section 3. The numerical aperture NA of 0. In order to compensate for thermal fluctuations of the equipment, in each measured point, the observed spectral shift was corrected by the Then, the whole structure was heated up by the Pt heaters and the temperature was measured and controlled via the temperature sensor placed above the Si surface.
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Using the upper temperature sensor ensured more precision of calibration, since its location is closer to the area effectively measured by the Raman. Then, a waiting time of 10 min was used to allow the whole system to reach the steady state. After that, the temperature i. Each spectrum required only 21 s to be measured, but a total of 4 points were measured per temperature step, in order to improve accuracy. No external temperature sensor was used to control the temperature, but the desired temperature was set according to the supplied current and the internal thermocouple reference.
After setting each temperature, a waiting time of 10 min was used to allow it to reach steady state. The measurement consisted of two perpendicular line scans each of ca. Figure 1.
CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors : Markus Graf :
The collected Raman spectra were fitted using pseudo-Voigt profiles in the Labspec software environment Horiba Jobin Yvon. Other calculations in the present work were carried out using Origin 9. Clearly, increasing the temperature produces a shift of the Si peak position towards the lower Raman shift values, together with a broadening of the Si Raman linewidth.
Increasing T produces a shift of the Raman line position and a broadening of the linewidth. In addition, A , B , C , and D are fitting parameters. Cui et al. Equation 3 differs from Equations 1 and 2 derived by Balkanski et al. In fact, Equation 3 was chosen to have the same functional form as that of the equation describing the renormalization by electron-phonon interaction of the band gap in the Einstein approximation [ 25 ]. Moreover, Equation 3 provides ease of calculation, since the temperature is obtained by simply inverting Equation 3 :. In the following, we applied and discussed the suitability of both approaches by Balkanski et al.
The effect of laser heating was calculated by considering a semi-infinite polysilicon substrate [ 26 ]. The temperature rise on the surface was calculated using the steady state heat equation [ 27 ]:. In Figure 3 , the Gaussian weighted average of the temperature rise can be seen as a function of each set temperature. The laser induced temperature rise increases with increasing temperature due to the temperature-dependent material parameters of the polysilicon. The induced temperature rise increases with the ambient temperature dominated by the thermal conductivity, which decreases with temperature.
The measured peak shift is plotted against temperature values corrected by the laser-induced heating temperature at each temperature step set by the Pt heater, according to the values displayed in Figure 3.
Cooling down after completion of the heating cycle allowed us to obtain similar values of the measured peak position, proving that the phonon shift with temperature is a reversible process. The temperature was calculated from the measured peak shift using Equation 1 according to the calibration displayed in Figure 4. Since the temperature calculated this way is still influenced by laser heating, in order to obtain the true temperature of the micro-hotplate, the laser heating temperature calculated as described in Section 3.
Moreover, the X and Y line scans evidence the presence of hot and cool spots throughout the micro-hotplate. Although some of these fluctuations could be due to statistical dispersions, some trends can be recognized, especially in the neighborhood of electrodes. This effect seems evident particularly on the X line scans, which were carried out in the narrow gap between electrodes, visible in Figure 1. Comparing Figure 5 e,g i. Further analyses i.
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Note the increasing discrepancy between set and measured temperatures for increasing T. The difference between set and measured temperatures is displayed in Figure 6 a for both the X and Y line scans, whereas Figure 6 b shows the average of both line scans for all temperatures. Figure 6 c. The discrepancy between the set and measured temperature was likely to be ascribed to the construction of the hotplates, in which the embedded thermocouple was not located on the heater structure but on two of the four connecting arms cf.
The error remains below this threshold at all measured temperatures. First, a calibration of the Raman spectroscopic response was carried out, also considering the temperature increase caused by the laser heating. Then, we measured the temperature on the hotplates by performing line scans in the X and Y directions, that is, perpendicular or parallel to the electrodes on the hotplate, respectively.
These issues may affect gas sensing measurements to a great extent, and thus call for a proper redesign e. A whole family of metal-oxide based microsensor systems with increasing complexity is presented, including fully integrated sensor arrays. This represents one of the first examples of integrated nanomaterials, microtechnology and embedded circuitry. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published November 22nd by Springer first published May 1st More Details Other Editions 1. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book.
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