Nucleation and Growth of Metals. From Thin Films to Nanoparticles

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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Derives the basic equations of nucleation from fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic relations Explores the main outcomes of a range of nucleation theories Features practical examples to further develop the theoretical aspects Provides state-of-the art information on Cu electroplating and related processes for the fabrication of advanced interconnects and elaboration of metallic nanoparticles.

Glossary List of Acronyms Bibliography Index.

Nucleation and Growth of Metals

Expert Scientist, electrochemical processes. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. Thank you for posting a review! We value your input. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online.

Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Formation of metal nanoparticles rhodium Rh and palladium Pd nanoparticles in an aqueous ethanol solution of poly N -vinylpyrrolidone PVP by photoreduction was monitored by means of in situ and time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering SAXS measurements.

Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

The time evolution of particle size, number of particles, and particle size distribution indicated that the formation of Rh nanoparticles predominantly follows an autocatalytic reduction—nucleation process before the onset of Ostwald ripening-based growth. On the other hand, in the formation of Pd nanoparticles, the reduction—nucleation process occurred significantly faster at the early stage of the reaction, and the dominant growth of Pd nanoparticles subsequently proceeded via an Ostwald ripening-based growth mechanism.

It was also found that the rate of nucleation and growth during the metal particle formation is strongly affected by the initial metal concentration and the addition of NaCl. C 29 View Author Information. Cite this: J. Article Views Altmetric -. Citations Supporting Information. Cited By. This article is cited by 58 publications.

Christopher B.

Supplementary files

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 1 , DOI: Willis, Emmett D. Tassone, and Matteo Cargnello. Chemistry of Materials , 30 3 , Ferenc Liebig, Andreas F. Langmuir , 32 42 , Tao Li, Andrew J. Senesi, and Byeongdu Lee. Chemical Reviews , 18 , Masafumi Harada and Risa Ikegami.


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Masafumi Harada and Syoko Kizaki. Langmuir , 32 1 , Ayman M. Kelly, Nicholas G. Winans, and Abhaya K.


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  • Nucleation and Growth of Metals?
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  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 23 , Nano Letters , 15 4 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 21 , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C , 16 , Fudong Wang, Vernal N. Richards, Shawn P. Shields, and William E. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Aggregative Nanocrystal Growth. Chemistry of Materials , 26 1 , Chemistry of Materials , 25 23 , Jeremy R. Dunklin, Gregory T. Forcherio, Keith R. Berry, Jr. Keith Roper. The data at nm were chosen to denote the change in absorption for 6. The response in all cases is nonlinear with a slight increase up to about 15 cycles and then a rapid increase beyond 15 cycles.

    TEM images see below support this hypothesis. The results given in Figure 3 b can be used to control the amount of nanoparticles deposited within the film by controlling the number of reaction cycles. Transmission electron microscopy TEM is a very useful technique to investigate the presence, size and density of nanoparticles in the LbL film. The figure shows some contrast in the pristine LbL film mostly from spherical features, which gives a diffuse diffraction pattern due to their amorphous nature.

    The two types of polymers are held together in the LbL structure by coulombic forces which are dominant near the regions where the greatest concentration of opposite charges of the cationic and anionic polymer overlap. Presumably the contrast in the LbL polymer complex is caused denser amorphous regions due to interacting opposing clusters of charges. TEM images of samples after 10 reaction cycles on 6. In contrast, samples below 10 cycles have very few of such structures not shown.

    The number density of the blunted arrow-like ZnS particles increases significantly after 10 cycles as shown in Figure 6 for 15 cycles. Comparing samples grown after 10 and 15 cycles, it appears that as the number of cycles increases, the number density of ZnS particles increases while their size length remains nearly constant nm - nm.

    This suggests that each reaction cycle causes additional nuclei of ZnS to form, although the number of nuclei is relatively low per single cycle, while existing nuclei grow to uniform size. Both figures indicate that the number of ZnS particles becomes significant at 10 cycles and beyond that number the growth and density of the ZnS nanoparticles increase with the number of cycles. Since the response in Figure 3 b is nonlinear for larger numbers of cycles, it may be possible that the presence of nanoparticles facilitates the nucleation of more particles.

    The layer-by-layer technique has been used to deposit polyions as nanofilms on substrates.

    The films were pre-. Figure 4.

    Nucleation and Growth of Metals - 1st Edition

    Bar is nm. Figure 5. TEM image of 6. Figure 6. The nucleated zinc sulfide particles have grown in size. Bar is 0. The inset shows the selected area electron diffraction SAED. Zinc sulfide nanoparticles were nucleated inside the films by way of a cyclic repetition of reductive hydrolysis.

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    UV-visible spectroscopy shows a regular assembly of the polymer films and also indicates the subsequent nucleation and growth of particles in the polymer matrix by reductive hydrolysis. TEM studies confirm the presence and growth of ZnS nanoparticles, with cubic spheralite structure, in the LbL polymer matrix. Lee, S. Cho, S. Kim, I. Park and Y. Li, Y. Zhu, C. Li, X. Yang and C. Chu, S.

    Chu, J. Britt, C.

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